κατά

κατά
κατά (Hom.+) prep. (s. the lit. s.v. ἀνά beg., also LfgrE s.v. κατά 1346; with the gen. 74 times in NT; w. acc. 391 times in NT).
A. w. the gen.
marker of extension or orientation in space or specific area
of location that is relatively lower, down from someth. (Hom. et al.; LXX; Ath. 1, 4 κ. κόρρης προπηλακίζειν=to smack on one side of the head) ὁρμᾶν κ. τοῦ κρημνοῦ rush down (from) the bank (cp. Polyb. 38, 16, 7 κ. τῶν κρημνῶν ῥίπτειν; Jos., Bell. 1, 313) Mt 8:32; Mk 5:13; Lk 8:33. κ. κεφαλῆς ἔχειν have someth. on one’s head (lit. hanging down fr. the head, as a veil. Cp. Plut., Mor. 200f ἐβάδιζε κ. τῆς κεφαλῆς ἔχων τὸ ἱμάτιον.; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 499, 5 of a mummy ἔχων τάβλαν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου) 1 Cor 11:4.
of position relatively deep, into someth. (Od. 9, 330 κ. σπείους ‘into the depths of the cave’; Hdt. 7, 235; X., An. 7, 1, 30) ἡ κ. βάθους πτωχεία extreme (lit. ‘reaching down into the depths’; cp. Strabo 9, 3, 5 [419] ἄντρον κοῖλον κ. βάθους) or abysmal poverty 2 Cor 8:2. This may perh. be the mng. of πλήσσειν τινὰ κ. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν strike someone deep into the eyes ApcPt 11:26 (cp. Demosth. 19, 197 ξαίνει κ. τοῦ νώτου; PPetr II, 18 [2b], 15 [246 B.C.] ἔτυπτεν αὐτὸν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου).—κ. γαστρός Just., D. 78, 3 for ἐν γαστρί Mt 1:18 (cp. Ath. 35, 2 τὸ κ. γαστρὸς ζῶον εἶναι).
extension in various directions within an area, throughout (so in Luke’s writings; Polyb. 3, 19, 7 κ. τῆς νήσου διεσπάρησαν; PGiss 48, 8 κ. κυριακῆς γῆς; Jos., Ant. 8, 297; SibOr 3, 222; 4, 24; 5, 305) γνωστὸν γενέσθαι καθʼ ὅλης Ἰόππης become known throughout all Joppa Ac 9:42. καθʼ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας 9:31; 10:37; Lk 23:5. φήμη ἐξῆλθεν καθʼ ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου 4:14.
down upon, toward, against someone or someth, fig. ext. of 1.
w. verbs of swearing, to denote what one swears by (Thu. 5, 47, 8; Lysias 32, 13; Isaeus 7, 28; Demosth. 21, 119; 29, 26; SIG 526, 4ff; 685, 25; UPZ 110, 39 [164 B.C.]; BGU 248, 13; Jdth 1:12; Is 45:23; 2 Ch 36:13) by ἐξορκίζειν (q.v.) Mt 26:63. ὀμνύναι (q.v.) Hb 6:13, 16. ὁρκίζειν (q.v.) Hs 9, 10, 5. Sim. ἐρωτᾶν κ. τινος request, entreat by someone Hv 3, 2, 3.
in a hostile sense, against
α. after verbs that express hostile action, etc. διχάζειν Mt 10:35. ἐπαίρεσθαι 2 Cor 10:5. ἰσχύειν Ac 19:16. κακοῦν 14:2. στρατεύεσθαι 1 Pt 2:11. φυσιοῦσθαι 1 Cor 4:6
β. after words and expressions that designate hostile speech, esp. an accusation ἔχειν (τι) κ. τινος have or hold someth. against someone Rv 2:4, 14, 20. φέρειν J 18:29. ἐγκαλεῖν Ro 8:33. ἐντυγχάνειν τινὶ κ. τινος 11:2 (TestJob 17:5). κατηγορεῖν Lk 23:14. ποιεῖν κρίσιν Jd 15a. τὸ κ. ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον the bond that stands against us Col 2:14. ἐμφανίζειν Ac 24:1; 25:2. αἰτεῖσθαί τι 25:3, 15. αἱ κ. τινος αἰτίαι vs. 27. εἰπεῖν πονηρόν Mt 5:11 (cp. Soph., Phil. 65 κακὰ λέγειν κ. τινος. X., Hell. 1, 5, 2; Isocr., C. Nic. 13; Plut., Mor. 2a λέγειν κ.; SIG 1180, 1 λέγειν κ. τινος; Just., A I, 23, 3; 49, 6 κ. τῶν … ὁμολογούντων). λαλεῖν ῥήματα Ac 6:13; cp. Jd 15b (TestDan 4:3; JosAs 23:15). μαρτυρεῖν κ. τ. θεοῦ give testimony in contradiction to God 1 Cor 15:15. ζητεῖν μαρτυρίαν κ. τινος testimony against someone Mk 14:55. ψευδομαρτυρεῖν 14:56f. ψευδομαρτυρία Mt 26:59. γογγύζειν 20:11. στενάζειν Js 5:9. διδάσκειν Ac 21:28. συμβούλιον διδόναι (ποιεῖν v.l.) Mk 3:6; ς. λαβεῖν Mt 27:1. ψεύδεσθαι Js 3:14 (Lysias 22, 7; X., Ap. 13; Ath. 35, 1 καθʼ ἡμῶν … κατεψεύσατο).
γ. after expressions that designate such a position or state of mind in a different way εἶναι κ. τινος be against someone (opp. ὑπέρ) Mk 9:40 (WNestle, ZNW 13, 1912, 84–87; AFridrichsen, ibid., 273–80); Ro 8:31; (opp. μετά) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23. δύνασθαί τι κ. τινος be able to do someth. against someone 2 Cor 13:8. ἔχειν τι κ. τινος have someth. against someone (in one’s heart) Mt 5:23; Mk 11:25; Hs 9, 24, 2; cp. ibid. 23, 2, where the acc. is to be supplied. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν J 19:11. ἐπιθυμεῖν Gal 5:17. μερίζεσθαι καθʼ ἑαυτῆς Mt 12:25. Cp. 1 Cl 39:4 (Job 4:18).—κατά prob. means against also in ἔβαλεν κατʼ αὐτῆς ἄνεμος Ac 27:14. ἐτελείωσαν κ. τ. κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν τὰ ἁμαρτήματα they completed the full measure of sins against their own head GPt 5:17.
B. w. acc. (so in the NT 399 times [besides καθʼ εἷς and κατὰ εἷς])
marker of spatial aspect
of extension in space, along, over, through, in, upon (Hom. et al.; OGI 90, 7 ἐκ τῶν κ. τ. χώραν ἱερῶν; PHib 82, 19; PTebt 5, 188; LXX; Just.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 5) Ac 24:12. καθʼ ὅλην τ. πόλιν throughout the city Lk 8:39 (cp. Diod S 4, 10, 6 καθʼ ὅλην τὴν Ἐλλάδα). ἐγένετο λιμὸς κ. τὴν χώραν ἐκείνην 15:14. κ. τὰς κώμας 9:6. κ. πόλεις καὶ κώμας 13:22 (Appian., Maced. 9 §1 and 4 κ. πόλεις; Just., A I, 67, 3 κ. πόλεις ἢ ἀγρούς).—κ. τόπους in place after place Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:11 (Theophr., περὶ σημ. 1, 4 p. 389 W.; Cat. Cod. Astr. III 28, 11 ἐν μέρει τ. ἀνατολῆς κ. τόπους, VIII/3, 186, 1 λιμὸς καὶ λοιμὸς καὶ σφαγαὶ κ. τόπους). οἱ ὄντες κ. τὴν Ἰουδαίαν those throughout Judea or living in Judea Ac 11:1. διασπαρῆναι κ. τὰς χώρας τῆς Ἰουδαίας be scattered over the regions of Judea 8:1. κ. τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν in the congregation there 13:1. τοῖς κ. τὴν Ἀντιόχειαν καὶ Συρίαν καὶ Κιλικίαν ἀδελφοῖς 15:23. τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη Ἰουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21. τοῖς κ. τὸν νόμον γεγραμμένοις throughout the law = in the law 24:14b. κ. τὴν ὁδόν along or on the way (Lucian, Catapl. 4; Jos., Ant. 8, 404) Lk 10:4; Ac 25:3; 26:13. τὸ κ. Κιλικίαν καὶ Παμφυλίαν πέλαγος the sea along the coast of Cilicia and Pamphylia 27:5; but the geographical designation τὰ μέρη τ. Λιβύης τῆς κ. Κυρήνην 2:10 prob. belongs to b: the parts of Libya toward Cyrene.
of extension toward, toward, to, up to ἐλθεῖν (γίνεσθαι v.l.) κ. τὸν τόπον come up to the place (Jos., Vi. 283) Lk 10:32. ἐλθόντες κ. τὴν Μυσίαν to Mysia Ac 16:7; cp. 27:7. πορεύεσθαι κ. μεσημβρίαν (s. μεσημβρία 2) toward the south 8:26 (cp. Jos., Bell. 5, 505). κ. σκοπὸν διώκειν run (over the course) toward the goal Phil 3:14. λιμὴν βλέπων κ. λίβα καὶ κ. χῶρον a harbor open to the southwest and northwest Ac 27:12 (s. βλέπω 8).—κ. πρόσωπον to the face (cp. Jos., Ant. 5, 205) Gal 2:11. ἔχειν τινὰ κ. πρόσωπον meet someone face to face (Thieme 19 has reff. for the use of κατὰ πρόσωπον as a legal formula) Ac 25:16. κ. πρόσωπον ταπεινός humble when personally present 2 Cor 10:1. κ. πρόσωπόν τινος in the presence of someone Lk 2:31; Ac 3:13. τὰ κ. πρόσωπον what lies before one’s eyes, i.e. is obvious 2 Cor 10:7. κ. ὀφθαλμοὺς προγράφειν portray before one’s eyes Gal 3:1.
of isolation or separateness, by (Thu. 1, 138, 6 οἱ καθʼ ἑαυτοὺς Ἕλληνες ‘the Greeks by themselves’; Polyb. 1, 24, 4; 5, 78, 3; 11, 17, 6; Diod S 13, 72, 8; Gen 30:40; 43:32; 2 Macc 13:13; Philo, Migr. Abr. 87; 90; Just., D. 4, 5 αὐτὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν γενομένη; Tat. 13, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν; Ath. 15, 2 ὁ πηλὸς καθʼ ἑαυτόν) ἔχειν τι καθʼ ἑαυτόν keep someth. to oneself Ro 14:22 (cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 255; Heliod. 7, 16, 1). καθʼ ἑαυτὸν μένειν live by oneself of the private dwelling of Paul in Rome Ac 28:16. πίστις νεκρὰ καθʼ ἑαυτήν faith by itself is dead Js 2:17 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 3, 43 τὸ σῶμα καθʼ αὑτὸ νεκρόν ἐστιν). ἡ κατʼ οἶκον ἐκκλησία the congregation in the house Ro 16:5; 1 Cor 16:19. κατʼ ἰδίαν s. ἴδιος 5. κ. μόνας (Thu. 1, 32, 5; Menand., Epitr. 988 S. [658 Kö.], Fgm. 146 Kö. [158 Kock]; Polyb. 4, 15, 11; Diod S 4, 51, 16; BGU 813, 15 [s. APF 2, 1903, 97]; LXX) alone, by oneself Mk 4:10; Lk 9:18; Hm 11:8 (here, as well as BGU loc. cit. and LXX, written as one word καταμόνας).
of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc., x by x (Arrian., Anab. 4, 21, 10 κ. σκηνήν=tent by tent) or from x to x: κατʼ οἶκον from house to house (PLond III, 904, 20 p. 125 [104 A.D.] ἡ κατʼ οἰκίαν ἀπογραφή) Ac 2:46b; 5:42 (both in ref. to various house assemblies or congregations; w. less probability NRSV ‘at home’); cp. 20:20. Likew. the pl. κ. τοὺς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος 8:3. κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19. κ. πόλιν (Jos., Ant. 6, 73) from city to city IRo 9:3, but in every (single) city Ac 15:21; 20:23; Tit 1:5. Also κ. πόλιν πᾶσαν (cp. Herodian 1, 14, 9) Ac 15:36; κ. πᾶσαν πόλιν 20:23 D. κ. πόλιν καὶ κώμην Lk 8:1; cp. vs. 4.
marker of temporal aspect (Hdt. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, apolog.)
in definite indications of time: at, on, during (Hdt. 8, 17; Polemon Soph. B 43 Reader κατʼ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ‘in the course of that day’) κατʼ ἀρχάς in the beginning (cp. ἀρχή 1b) Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26). κ. τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ in the day of trial 3:8 (Ps 94:8.—Cp. Antig. Car. 173 κ. τὸν σπόρου καιρόν). νεκροῦ … ἀνάστασιν κατʼ αὐτὸν γεγονυῖαν ἱστορεῖ (Papias) reports that a resurrection from the dead occurred in his time Papias (2, 9; so, with personal names, Hdt.; Just., D. 23, 1 τοῦ θεοῦ … τοῦ κ. τὸν Ἐνώχ; Tat. 31, 2 Θεαγένης … κ. Καμβύσην γεγονώς). Of the future: κ. τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον at that time, then Ro 9:9 (Gen 18:10). Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, then (2 Macc 3:5; TestJos 12:1; Jos., Ant. 8, 266; cp. κατʼ ἐκεῖνο τοῦ καιροῦ Konon: 26 Fgm. 3 p. 191, 25 Jac.; Just., A I, 17, 2; 26, 3 al.) Ac 12:1; 19:23. κ. καιρόν at that time, then Ro 5:6 (Just., D. 132, 1; cp. OGI 90, 28 καθʼ ὸ̔ν καιρόν), unless καιρός here means the right time (s. καιρός 1b end). κατʼ ὄναρ (as καθʼ ὕπνον Gen 20:6; Just., D 60, 5 κ. τοὺς ὕπνους) during a dream, in a dream Mt 1:20; 2:12 (s. s.v. ὄναρ for ins).
with indefinite indications of time: toward, about κ. τὸ μεσονύκτιον about midnight Ac 16:25; cp. 27:27.—8:26 (s. μεσημβρία 1).
distributively (cp. 1d): x period by x period: κατʼ ἔτος every year (s. ἔτος) Lk 2:41. Also κατʼ ἐνιαυτόν (s. ἐνιαυτός 1) Hb 9:25; 10:1, 3. καθʼ ἡμέραν daily, every day (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Mt 26:55; Mk 14:49; Lk 16:19; 22:53; Ac 2:46f; 3:2; 16:5; 17:11; 19:9; 1 Cor 15:31; Hb 7:27; 10:11. Also τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Lk 11:3; 19:47; Ac 17:11 v.l. ἡ ἐπίστασις ἡ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἐπίστασις) 2 Cor 11:28. κ. πᾶσαν ἡμέραν every day (Jos., Ant. 6, 49) Ac 17:7. Also καθʼ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Hb 3:13. κ. μίαν σαββάτου on the first day of every week 1 Cor 16:2. κ. πᾶν σάββατον every Sabbath Ac 13:27; 15:21b; 18:4. κ. μῆνα ἕκαστον each month Rv 22:2 (κ. μῆνα as SIG 153, 65; POxy 275, 18; 2 Macc 6:7). κ. ἑορτήν at each festival Mt 27:15; Mk 15:6.
marker of division of a greater whole into individual parts, at a time, in detail, distributive use apart from indications of place (s. above 1d) and time (s. 2c)
w. numerals: κ. δύο ἢ τὸ πλεῖστον τρεῖς two or, at the most, three at a time (i.e. in any one meeting, cp. ἀνὰ μέρος) 1 Cor 14:27 (Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 42 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς; Jos., Ant. 3, 142 κ. ἕξ; 5, 172 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς). καθʼ ἕνα (on this and the foll. s. εἷς 5e) singly, one after the other vs. 31. κ. ἕνα λίθον each individual stone Hs 9, 3, 5; καθʼ ἕνα λίθον 9, 6, 3. κ. ἓν ἕκαστον one by one, in detail Ac 21:19; 1 Cl 32:1 (Ath. 28, 4 καθʼ ἕκαστον). εἷς καθʼ εἷς Mk 14:19; J 8:9; cp. Ro 12:5 (B-D-F §305; Rob. 460). κ. ἑκατὸν καὶ κ. πεντήκοντα in hundreds and in fifties Mk 6:40.
περί τινος λέγειν κ. μέρος speak of someth. in detail Hb 9:5 (s. μέρος 1c). κατʼ ὄνομα (each one) by name (ἀσπάζομαι … τοὺς ἐνοίκους πάντες κα[τʼ] ὄνομα PTebt [III A.D.] 422, 11–16; Jos., Vi. 86) J 10:3; 3J 15 (cp. BGU 27, 18); ISm 13:2.
marker of intention or goal, for the purpose of, for, to (Thu. 6, 31, 1 κ. θέαν ἥκειν=to look at something; cp. Sb 7263, 6 [254 B.C.]; X., An. 3, 5, 2 καθʼ ἁρπαγὴν ἐσκεδασμένοι; Arrian, Anab. 1, 17, 12; 4, 5, 1; 21, 9; 6, 17, 6; 26, 2; Lucian, Ver. Hist. 2, 29; Anton. Lib., Fab. 24, 1 Δημήτηρ ἐπῄει γῆν ἅπασαν κ. ζήτησιν τῆς θυγατρός; 38; Jdth 11:19) κ. τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων for the Jewish ceremonial purification J 2:6. κατὰ ἀτιμίαν λέγω to my shame 2 Cor 11:21 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 268 κ. τιμὴν τ. θεοῦ τοῦτο ποιῶν). ἀπόστολος … κ. πίστιν … καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν an apostle … for the faith … and the knowledge Tit 1:1 (but the mng. ‘in accordance with’ is also prob.).
marker of norm of similarity or homogeneity, according to, in accordance with, in conformity with, according to
to introduce the norm which governs someth.
α. the norm of the law, etc. (OGI 56, 33; Mitt-Wilck., I/2, 352, 11 κ. τὰ κελευσθέντα [as Just., D. 78, 7]; POxy 37 II, 8) κ. τὸν νόμον (Jos., Ant. 14, 173; 15, 51; Just., D. 10, 1 al.; Ath. 31, 1; κ. τοὺς νόμους Ἀρεοπαγείτης, letter of MAurelius: ZPE 8, ’71, 169, ln. 27) Lk 2:22; J 18:31; 19:7; Hb 7:5. τὰ κ. τ. νόμον what is to be done according to the law Lk 2:39 (cp. EpArist 32). κ. τὸ ὡρισμένον in accordance w. what has been determined 22:22. Cp. 1:9; 2:24, 27, 42; Ac 17:2; 22:3. κ. τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου Ro 2:16; 16:25a; 2 Ti 2:8. κ. τὸ εἰρημένον Ro 4:18 (cp. Ath. 28, 1 κ. τὰ προειρημένα). κ. τὰς γραφάς (Just., D. 82, 4; cp. Paus. 6, 21, 10 κ. τὰ ἔπη=according to the epic poems; Just., A I, 32, 14 κ. τὸ λόγιον, D. 67, 1 κ. τὴν προφητείαν ταύτην) 1 Cor 15:3; cp. Js 2:8. κ. τὴν παράδοσιν Mk 7:5 (Tat. 39, 1 κ. τὴν Ἑλλήνων παράδοσιν).—κ. λόγον as one wishes (exx. in Dssm., B 209 [not in BS]; also PEleph 13, 1; 3 Macc 3:14) Ac 18:14 (though 5bβ below is also prob.).—It can also stand simply w. the acc. of the pers. according to whose will, pleasure, or manner someth. occurs κ. θεόν (cp. Socrat., Ep. 14, 5 κ. θεόν; 26, 2; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 4 p. 332, 1 Jac. and Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 84 §352 κ. δαίμονα; Jos., Ant. 4, 143 ὁ κ. τοῦτον[=θεόν] βίος; Just., D. 5, 1 κ. τινας … Πλατωνικούς; Tat. 1, 3 κ. … τὸν κωμικόν) Ro 8:27; 2 Cor 7:9–11; κ. Χριστὸν Ἰ. Ro 15:5. κ. κύριον 2 Cor 11:17. Cp. 1 Pt 1:15. κ. τ. Ἕλληνας in the manner of the Greeks, i.e. polytheists PtK 2, p. 14, 1; 7. κ. Ἰουδαίους ln. 25.
β. the norm according to which a judgment is rendered, or rewards or punishments are given ἀποδοῦναι τινι κ. τ. πρᾶξιν or ἔργα αὐτοῦ (Ps 61:13; Pr 24:12; Just., A I, 12, 1; 17, 4 al.; κατʼ ἀξίαν τῶν πράξεων) Mt 16:27; Ro 2:6; 2 Ti 4:14; Rv 2:23. μισθὸν λήμψεται κ. τ. ἴδιον κόπον 1 Cor 3:8. κρίνειν κ. τι J 7:24; 8:15; 1 Pt 1:17; cp. Ro 2:2.
γ. of a standard of any other kind κ. τ. χρόνον ὸ̔ν ἠκρίβωσεν in accordance w. the time which he had ascertained Mt 2:16. κ. τ. πίστιν ὑμῶν acc. to your faith 9:29. κ. τ. δύναμιν acc. to his capability 25:15 (Just., D. 139, 4; Tat. 12, 3; cp. Just., A II, 13, 6 κ. δύναμιν). Cp. Lk 1:38; 2:29; Ro 8:4; 10:2; Eph 4:7. ἀνὴρ κ. τ. καρδίαν μου Ac 13:22 (καρδία 1bε).
δ. Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged: οἱ κ. πρόθεσιν κλητοί Ro 8:28. κατʼ ἐπιταγὴν θεοῦ 16:26; 1 Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Eph 3:3 (Just., D. 78, 2). οἱ καθʼ ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ Ro 2:7. κατʼ ἐκλογήν 11:5 (Just., D. 49, 1). Cp. κ. τὴν βουλήν Eph 1:11 (Just., A I, 63, 16 al.); 2 Th 2:9; Hb 7:16. κ. τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο; by what shall I know this? (cp. Gen 15:8) Lk 1:18.—Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of (Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 219 D.: κ. τοὺς νόμους; Jos., Ant. 1, 259; 278; Just., A I, 54, 1 κατʼ ἐνέργειαν τῶν φαύλων δαιμόνων; Ath. 7, 1 κ. συμπάθειαν τῆς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ πνοῆς; 32, 1 κ. χρησμόν). κ. πᾶσαν αἰτίαν for any and every reason (αἰτία 1) Mt 19:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2. Cp. Ro 2:5; 1 Cor 12:8 (κ. τ. πνεῦμα = διὰ τοῦ πν.); Eph 1:5; 4:22b; Phil 4:11; 1 Ti 5:21; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 3:5; κ. ἀνάγκην Phlm 14 (Ar. 1, 2; 4, 2 al.; Just., A I, 30, 1; 61, 10; Ath. 24, 2); IPol 1:3. ὁ κ. τὸ πολὺ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς 1 Pt 1:3.—καθʼ ὅσον (Thu. 4, 18, 4) in so far as, inasmuch as Hb 3:3. καθʼ ὅσον … , κ. τοσοῦτο in so far as … , just so far (Lysias 31, 8; Galen, De Dignosc. Puls. 3, 2, VIII 892 K.) 7:20, 22.
as a periphrasis to express equality, similarity, or example in accordance with, just as, similar(ly) to (TestJob 32:6 τίς γὰρ κ. σε ἐν μέσῳ τῶν τέκνων σου; Tat. 25, 1 κ. … τὸν Πρωτέα like Proteus; schol. on Nicander, Ther. 50: sheep are not burden-bearers κ. τοὺς ὄνους=as donkeys are).
α. κ. τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν μὴ ποιεῖτε do not do as they do Mt 23:3. κ. Ἰσαάκ just as Isaac Gal 4:28. κ. θεὸν κτισθείς Eph 4:24 (Synes., Prov. 2, 2 p. 118c κ. θεόν=just as a god). Cp. Col 3:10. κ. τὸν τύπον Hb 8:5 (Ex 25:40; Mel., P. 58, 424 [νόμον v.l.]). Cp. 5:6 (Ps 109:4); 8:9 (Jer 38: 32); Js 3:9.—κ. τὰ αὐτά in (just) the same way (OGI 56, 66; PEleph 2, 6; 1 Macc 8:27; 12:2; Just., D. 1, 2; 3, 5; 113, 3) Lk 6:23, 26; 17:30; Dg 3:1. On the other hand, the sing. κ. τὸ αὐτό Ac 14:1 means together (marriage contract PEleph 1, 5 [IV B.C.] εἶναι ἡμᾶς κ. ταὐτό; 1 Km 11:11). καθʼ ὸ̔ν τρόπον just as (2 Macc 6:20; 4 Macc 14:17) Ac 15:11; 27:25. καθʼ ὅσον … , οὕτως (just) as … , so Hb 9:27. κ. πάντα τρόπον in every way (PSI 520, 16 [250 B.C.]; PCairZen 631, 2; 3 Macc 3:24) Ro 3:2. κ. μηδένα τρόπον (PMagd 14, 9 [221 B.C.]; PRein 7, 31; 3 Macc 4:13; 4 Macc 4:24; Just., D. 35, 7; s. Reader, Polemo 262) 2 Th 2:3. Cp. Johannessohn, Kasus, 1910, 82. κατά w. acc. serves in general
β. to indicate the nature, kind, peculiarity or characteristics of a thing (freq. as a periphrasis for the adv.; e.g. Antiochus of Syracuse [V B.C.]: 555 Fgm. 12 Jac. κ. μῖσος=out of hate, filled with hate) κατʼ ἐξουσίαν with authority or power Mk 1:27. κ. συγκυρίαν by chance Lk 10:31. κ. ἄγνοιαν without knowing Ac 3:17 (s. ἄγνοια 2a). κ. ἄνθρωπον 1 Cor 3:3 al. (s. Straub 15; Aeschyl., Th. 425; ἄνθρωπος 2b). κ. κράτος powerfully, Ac 19:20 (κράτος 1a). κ. λόγον reasonably, rightly (Pla.; Polyb. 1, 62, 4; 5; 5, 110, 10; Jos., Ant. 13, 195; PYale 42, 24 [12 Jan., 229 B.C.]) 18:14 (but s. above 5aα). λέγειν τι κ. συγγνώμην οὐ κατʼ ἐπιταγήν say someth. as a concession, not as a command 1 Cor 7:6; cp. 2 Cor 8:8. κ. τάξιν in (an) order(ly manner) 1 Cor 14:40 (τάξις 2). κατʼ ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν with eye-service Eph 6:6. μηδὲν κατʼ ἐριθείαν μηδὲ κ. κενοδοξίαν Phil 2:3. κ. ζῆλος zealously 3:6a, unless this pass. belongs under 6 below, in its entirety. κ. σάρκα on the physical plane Ro 8:12f; 2 Cor 1:17; also 5:16ab, if here κ. ς. belongs w. οἴδαμεν or ἐγνώκαμεν (as Bachmann, JWeiss, H-D Wendland, Sickenberger take it; s. 7a below). καθʼ ὑπερβολήν (PTebt 42, 5f [c. 114 B.C.] ἠδικημένος καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπὸ, Ἁρμιύσιος; 4 Macc 3:18) beyond measure, beyond comparison Ro 7:13; 1 Cor 12:31; 2 Cor 4:17. καθʼ ὁμοιότητα (Aristot.; Gen 1:12; Philo, Fug. 51; Tat. 12, 4 κ. τὸ ὅμοιον αὐτῇ) in a similar manner Hb 4:15b. κ. μικρόν in brief B 1:5 (μικρός 1eγ).
denoting relationship to someth., with respect to, in relation to κ. σάρκα w. respect to the flesh, physically of human descent Ro 1:3; 4:1; 9:3, 5 (Ar. 15, 7 κ. σάρκα … κ. ψυχήν; Just., D. 43, 7 ἐν τῷ γένει τῷ κ. σάρκα τοῦ Ἀβραάμ al.). κ. τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον 7:22 (cp. POxy 904, 6 πληγαῖς κατακοπτόμενον κ. τὸ σῶμα). Cp. Ro 1:4; 11:28; Phil 3:5, 6b (for vs. 6a s. 5bβ above); Hb 9:9b. τὰ κ. τινα (Hdt. 7, 148; Diod S 1, 10, 73; Aelian, VH 2, 20; PEleph 13, 3; POxy 120, 14; Tob 10:9; 1 Esdr 9:17; 2 Macc 3:40; 9:3 al.) someone’s case, circumstances Ac 24:22 (cp. PEleph 13, 3 τὰ κ. σε; Just., A I, 61, 13 τὰ κ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν πάντα, D. 102, 2 τὰ κ. αὐτόν; Ath. 24, 4 τὸ κ. τοὺς ἀγγέλους); 25:14; Eph 6:21; Phil 1:12; Col 4:7. κ. πάντα in all respects (since Thu. 4, 81, 3; Sb 4324, 3; 5761, 22; SIG 834, 7; Gen 24:1; Wsd 19:22; 2 Macc 1:17; 3 Macc 5:42; JosAs 1:7; Just., A II, 4, 4, D. 35, 8 al.); Ac 17:22; Col 3:20, 22a; Hb 2:17 (Artem. 1, 13 αὐτῷ ὅμοιον κ. π.); 4:15a.
Somet. the κατά phrase, which would sound cumbersome in the rendering ‘such-and-such’, ‘in line with’, or ‘in accordance with’, is best rendered as an adj., a possessive pron., or with a genitival construction to express the perspective from which something is perceived or to be understood. In translation it thus functions as
an adj. (Synes., Kingdom 4 p. 4d τὰ κατʼ ἀρετὴν ἔργα i.e. the deeds that are commensurate with that which is exceptional = virtuous deeds; PHib 27, 42 ταῖς κ. σελήνην ἡμέραις; 4 Macc 5:18 κ. ἀλήθειαν=ἀληθής; Just., A I, 2, 1 τοὺς κ. ἀλήθειαν εὐσεβεῖς; Tat. 26, 2 τῆς κ. ἀλήθειαν σοφίας) οἱ κ. φύσιν κλάδοι the natural branches Ro 11:21. ἡ κατʼ εὐσέβειαν διδασκαλία 1 Ti 6:3; cp. Tit 1:1b. οἱ κ. σάρκα κύριοι the earthly masters (in wordplay, anticipating the κύριος who is in the heavens, vs. 9) Eph 6:5. Cp. 2 Cor 5:16b, in case (s. 5bβ above) κ. ς. belongs w. Χριστόν (as the majority, incl. Ltzm., take it): a physical Christ, a Christ in the flesh, in his earthly relationships (σάρξ 5). Correspondingly in vs. 16a κ. ς. would be taken w. οὐδένα: no one simply as a physical being.—JMartyn, JKnox Festschr., ’67, 269–87.
a possessive pron., but with limiting force (Demosth. 2, 27 τὰ καθʼ ὑμᾶς ἐλλείμματα [i.e. in contrast to the activities of others: ‘your own’]; Aelian, VH 2, 42 ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ἀρετή; 3, 36; OGI 168, 17 παραγεγονότες εἰς τοὺς καθʼ ὑμᾶς τόπους; SIG 646, 6; 807, 15 al.; UPZ 20, 9 [II B.C.] ἐπὶ τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς λειτουργίας; PTebt 24, 64; 2 Macc 4:21; Tat. 42, 1 τίς ὁ θεὸς καὶ τίς ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ποίησις; Mel., HE 4, 26, 7 ἡ καθʼ ἡμᾶς φιλοσοφία) τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν τινες some of your (own) poets Ac 17:28. ἡ καθʼ ὑμᾶς πίστις Eph 1:15. ὁ καθʼ ὑμᾶς νόμος Ac 18:15. τὸ κατʼ ἐμὲ πρόθυμον my eagerness Ro 1:15.
a gen. w. a noun (Polyb. 3, 113, 1 ἡ κ. τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατολή; 2, 48, 2; 3, 8, 1 al.; Diod S 14, 12 ἡ κ. τὸν τύραννον ὠμότης; Dionys. Hal. 2, 1; SIG 873, 5 τῆς κ. τ. μυστήρια τελετῆς; 569, 22; 783, 20; PTebt 5, 25; PLond III, 1164k, 20 p. 167 [212 A.D.] ὑπὸ τοῦ κ. πατέρα μου ἀνεψιοῦ) τὰ κ. Ἰουδαίους ἔθη the customs of the Judeans Ac 26:3 (Tat. 12, 5 τῇ κ. Βαβυλωνίους προγνωστικῇ; 34, 2 ἡ κ. τὸν Ἀριστόδημον πλαστική). Cp. 27:2. ἡ κ. πίστιν δικαιοσύνη the righteousness of faith Hb 11:7. ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις purpose of election Ro 9:11.—Here also belong the titles of the gospels εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον etc., where κατά is likew. periphrasis for a gen. (cp. JLydus, De Mag. 3, 46 p. 136, 10 Wünsch τῆς κ. Λουκανὸν συγγραφῆς; Herodian 2, 9, 4 of an autobiography ἐν τῷ καθʼ αὑτὸν βίῳ; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 18 τ. καθʼ αὐτὸν ἱστορίαν; 2 Macc 2:13. Cp. B-D-F §163; 224, 2; Zahn, Einleitung §49; BBacon, Why ‘According to Mt’? Exp., 8th ser., 16, 1920, 289–310).—On the periphrasis of the gen. by κατά s. Rudberg (ἀνά beg.) w. many exx. fr. Pla. on. But it occurs as early as Thu. 6, 16, 5 ἐν τῷ κατʼ αὐτοὺς βίῳ.—M-M. DELG. EDNT. TW.

Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία. 2015.

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  • κατά — και κατ , μπροστά από φωνήεν με ψιλή και καθ , μπροστά από φωνήεν με δασεία, πρόθ. 1. με γενική σημαίνει α. κίνηση: Πήγε κατά διαβόλου. β. εχθρική κίνηση εναντίον κάποιου: Όρμησε κατά του αντιπάλου του. γ. εχθρική διάθεση: Είναι κατά του πολέμου …   Νέο ερμηνευτικό λεξικό της νεοελληνικής γλώσσας (Новый толковании словарь современного греческого)

  • κατά — downwards. indeclform (prep) …   Greek morphological index (Ελληνική μορφολογικούς δείκτες)

  • κατά — (I) (AM κατά, Α αρκαδ. τ. κατύ και ποιητ. τ. καταί) πρόθεση που δηλώνει: 1. (με γεν.) α) κίνηση προς κάτι (α. «πάει κατά διαβόλου» πάει προς την καταστροφή β. «πάμε κατά καπνού» βαδίζουμε στον αφανισμό γ. «άι κατ ανέμου» χάσου απ εδώ δ. «κατὰ… …   Dictionary of Greek

  • κάτα — (I) η (Μ κάτ[τ]α) γάτα. [ΕΤΥΜΟΛ. < λατ. catta «είδος αιλουροειδούς»]. (II) κᾆτα (Α) στην αττ. διάλ. κράση τών λ. καὶ είτα …   Dictionary of Greek

  • κατα- — (από την πρόθ. κατά), α’ συνθετ. λέξεων για επίταση: κατάμαυρος …   Νέο ερμηνευτικό λεξικό της νεοελληνικής γλώσσας (Новый толковании словарь современного греческого)

  • κάτα — κάτος following neut nom/voc/acc pl κατά downwards. indeclform (prep) …   Greek morphological index (Ελληνική μορφολογικούς δείκτες)

  • κἆτα — ἆ̱τα , ἄατος insatiate neut nom/voc/acc pl ἄ̱τᾱ , ἄτη bewilderment fem nom/voc/acc dual ἄ̱τᾱ , ἄτη bewilderment fem nom/voc sg (doric aeolic) ἄτα , ἆτος insatiate neut nom/voc/acc pl …   Greek morphological index (Ελληνική μορφολογικούς δείκτες)

  • κᾆτα — εἶτα , εἶτα then indeclform (adverb) …   Greek morphological index (Ελληνική μορφολογικούς δείκτες)

  • Κατὰ ροῦν φέρεσθαι. — См. Идти против течения …   Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона (оригинальная орфография)

  • Τὰ κατὰ πρόσωπα δυσχεραίνουσι καὶ κύνες. — τὰ κατὰ πρόσωπα δυσχεραίνουσι καὶ κύνες. См. Такая красава, что в окно глянет, конь прянет, на двор выйдет три дня собаки лают …   Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона (оригинальная орфография)

  • Ὄλον τὸν βοῦν ἔφαγε, κατὰ δὲ τὴν κέρκον ἀπηγόρευσε. — См. Собаку съел, только хвостом подавился …   Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона (оригинальная орфография)

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